**Introduction to Semiconductor Physics**** **

*Prof. V.D.Kulakovskii*

*The course is devoted to the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. The principal divisions as well as current problems (polaritons in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quasi-two-dimensional nanostructures) of semiconductor physics are considered. *

**Curriculum **

- Introduction. Kinetic phenomena in semiconductors: electrical conduction, quantum Hall effect, magnetic zero and temperature gradient effects. Mean free time.
- Elementary theory of galvanomagnetic effects (magnetic field electrical conductivity tensor), Hall angle and Hall constant, magnetoresistance), mixed conductivity, experimental measure measurements of conductivity and quantum Hall effect.
- Chemical bonds in semiconductors. Crystal lattices, electron configuration of atoms. Types of chemical bond: ion bond, homopolar bond, Van der Waals chemical bond, mixed bond crystal, noncrystalline semiconductors.
- Semiconductor properties and chemical bond. Forbidden band, impurity levels, crystal vacancies.
- Elements of band theory of semiconductors (perfect lattice). Basic assumptions of band theory. Wave electron function in periodic field, Brillouin zones, energy bands.
- Strongly coupled electron method.
- Electron and hole dispersion law. Effective mass. Examples of semiconductor band structure.
- Elements of semiconductor band theory (semiconductors in external fields, imperfect crystals). Average values of electron acceleration and velocity, electrons and holes in magnetic field (classical theory), diamagnetic resonance.
- Effective mass method. Electron and hole energy spectra in constant electric field (quantum theory), shallow impurity levels.
- Electron and hole statistics in semiconductors. Band distribution of quantum states, Fermi-Dirac distribution, effective state density in bands, carrier concentration in degenerate and nondegenerate semiconductors, electron and hole concentration on local levels.
- Gibbs distribution. Determination of Fermi level position in intrinsic semiconductor and doped semiconductors.
- Contact phenomena. Potential barriers, current density, Einstein relation, body equilibrium condition, thermionic work function, contact potential difference.
- Distribution of electron and potential concentration in bulk charge layer, screening length, enriched and depleted layer. Metal-semiconductor rectification.
- Non-equilibrium electrons and holes in semiconductors. Non-equilibrium electron and hole lifetime, continuity equation, photoconductivity, Fermi quasilevels.
- Problems of band theory justification. Adiabatic approximation, small oscillation approximation, self-consistent field method.
- Polaritons, excitons, exciton molecules, exciton ionization, electron-hole plasma, electron-hole liquid.
- Polaritons in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quasi-two-dimensional nanostructures.
- Polaritons in semiconductor microresonators.